Grid - consists of sets of alignments that serves as a guide for distributing elements across a space.
*Using a grid permits a designer to lay out enormous amounts of information, such as in a book or a series of catalogs, in substantially less time because many of the design considerations have been addressed in building the grid's structure. The grid also allows many individuals to collaborate on the same project or on series of related projects over time, without compromising established visual qualities from one project to the next.
Modular Grid - is a grid with four rows and four columns
Columns - are vertical alignments of type that create horizontal divisions between the margins.
Modules - are individual units of space separated by regular intervals that, when repeated across the page format, create columns and rows.
Margins - are the negative spaces between the format edge and the content, which surround and define the live area where type and images are arranged.
Flow-lines - are alignments that break the space into horizontal bands.
Gutter - blank space between columns.
Hierarchy - is the task of helping a reader understand information in a way that makes sense by organizing it in an order that allows the viewer to enter the typographic space and navigate it.
Typographic Color - a change in the rhythm, value, texture and weight of text that makes it either recede or be drawn forward to the eye and can sometimes dramatically change the hierarchy of the text.
*Good organization is key to achieving good hierarchy. Grouping like subject matter together and aligning them in an aesthetically pleasing manner will give the work a balanced feel. Shifting something out of alignment immediately draws attention to it (which can sometimes be good) Size also plays a significant role. Larger items are viewed as if they are in the foreground, thus receiving more attention. While smaller items are viewed further back and are less noticeable.